#105 [EN] Fons Trompenaars – Reconciling cultural differences (between countries and within organisations)


(The episode starts after a short introduction in Portuguese)

O convidado é autor e consultor na área da gestão das organizações e da comunicação inter-cultural. Conhecido sobretudo pela autoria de um dos modelos de diferenças entre culturas nacionais mais conhecidos, que popularizou no livro “Riding the Waves of Culture”, publicado em 1993. 

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O modelo de Trompenaars é — juntamente com o modelo de Hofstede que já referi várias vezes no podcast — uma das referências quando se trata de comparar culturas entre diferentes países. Nenhum dos dois modelos é perfeito — até porque implicam necessariamente generalizar as culturas de países com milhões de pessoas com crenças e valores muito distintos –, mas a verdade é que há inegavelmente padrões nas culturas nacionais, e ler livros como o de Trompenaars muda a maneira como entendemos as reacções de pessoas de outras culturas.

Ao longo da conversa, discutimos algumas das dimensões do modelo do convidado, como as culturas mais e menos emocionais, e mais e menos individualistas. Falámos também sobre como é possível ‘reconciliar’ os dilemas que surgem quando diferentes culturas entram em conflito — por exemplo dentro de empresas multinacionais. O autor tem adaptado este estudo sobretudo em aconselhar empresas que actuam entre vários países sobre como gerir as diferenças de culturas nos vários países em que operam. Como se adivinha, as organizações com maior sucesso são aquelas que mais bem conseguem articular estes desafios. 

 

Índice da conversa:

  1. Fons Trompenaars
  2. Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
  3. Modelo de Hofstede
  4. What is culture
    1. Ed (Edgar) Schein Model of Organization Culture
    2. Culture shocks
    3. Culture as the most persistent difference between countries
  5. Why are there different cultures to begin with?
  6. Charles Hampden-Turner
  7. Neutral vs emotional cultures
  8. The Civilizing Process, Norbert Elias
  9. Specific vs diffuse cultures
  10. On why both ends of a cultural trait have benefits
  11. On why compromise is not necessarily the best solution
  12. Dilema reconciliation
  13. Universalism vs Particularism
    1. The dilemma of the car crash 
  14. The ascension of China. 
    1. Fons’s recent book: “Has China Devised a Superior Path to Wealth Creation? The Role of Secular Values”
  15. Is individualism good?
    1. Relation to inequality
    2. Milton Friedman’s 1970 New York Times article: “The Social Responsibility Of Business Is to Increase Its Profits”
    3. Explaining performance of organisations by their ability to reconcile dilemmas
      1. Charles Handy
    4. On the problem of jobs which add a lot of value to society but are poorly paid
    5. American individualism
  16. Examples of dilemma reconciliation
    1. Apple, 
    2. Formula 1
  17. Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  18. How to assess individual performance in more collectivist cultures?
  19. How to avoid free riders without measuring individual performance?
  20. Shame-based vs guilt cultures
  21. The case of the Portuguese culture
  22. Can you change a national culture?
    1. The case of Royal Dutch Shell
    2. The case of Lee Kuan Yew in Singapore

 

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Esta conversa foi editada por: Martim Cunha Rego

Bio: Dr. Fons Trompenaars is recognised around world for his work as consultant, trainer, motivational speaker and author of various books on all subjects of culture and business. He has spent over 30 years helping Fortune 500 leaders manage and solve their business and cultural dilemmas to increase global effectiveness and performance, particularly in the areas of globalisation, mergers and acquisition, HR and leadership development. Listed regularly as one of the world’s most influential, living, management thinkers, he has been awarded the International Professional Practice Area Research Award by the American Society for Training and Development. Fons was voted one of the top 20 HR Most Influential International Thinkers 2011 by HR Magazine. He is also ranked in the Thinkers50 2011, 2013 and 2015 as being one of the most influential management thinkers alive. He was inducted in the Thinkers50 Hall of Fame in 2017 which salutes distinguished Management Thinkers and their contributions whose names and legacies are added to the ranks of those who have arrived before them. They are distinguished thinkers who have all made a lasting and vital impact on how organizations are led and managed. They are the giants upon whose shoulders managers and leaders stand. Fons joined Shell in 1981 and moved into the Personnel Division for Shell in Rotterdam. From 1985, he worked in job classification and management development at the Shell Research Laboratories in Amsterdam. In 1989 he founded the Centre for International Business Studies, a consulting and training organization for international management. Since 1998 we operate as Trompenaars Hampden-Turner. Fons Trompenaars has worked as a consultant for Shell, BP, ICI, Philips, Heineken, TRW, Mars, Motorola, General Motors, Nike, Cable and Wireless, CSM and Merrill Lynch. Fons wrote Riding the Waves of Culture, Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business. This book sold over 120,000 copies and was translated into 16 languages amongst them, French, German, Dutch, Korean, Danish, Turkish, Chinese, Hungarian and Portuguese. He is co-author amongst others of Nine Visions of Capitalism: Unlocking the Meanings of Wealth Creation and Rewarding Performance Globally.

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